لكل جواد كبوة. محمد

Lapidus 2002 , pp 0 These sources contain internal complexities, anachronisms, discrepancies, and contradictions
Denis Gril, Miracles, , Brill, 2007

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El-Cheikh, Nadia Maria Byzantium Viewed by the Arabs 2004, Harvard University Press p.

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however, there is no relevant archaeological, epigraphic, or numismatic evidence dating from the time of Muhammad, nor are there any references to him in non-Muslim sources dating from the period before 632
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See, for example, Bowersock, Glen Warren, Peter Robert Lamont Brown and Oleg Grabar Late Antiquity: A Guide to the Postclassical World 1999, Harvard University Press p "Muhmmad," Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim world• Moreover, many of them provide evidence of embellishment and invention that were introduced to serve the purposes of political or religious apologetic
Kafih Jerusalem, 1984 , ch

محمد

The Bustan al-Ukul, by Nathanael ibn al-Fayyumi, edited and translated by David Levine, Columbia University Oriental Studies Vol.

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597, which notes that many of the details surrounding Muhammad's life as given in the biographies, are "problematic in certain respects, the most important of which is that they represent a tradition of living narrative that is likely to have developed orally for a considerable period before it was given even a relatively fixed written form
محمد
Hitti, History of the Arabs, 10th edition 1970 , p